Accès gratuit
Pré-publication électronique
Dans une revue
Ann. Fr. Med. Urgence
Section Recommandations pour la pratique clinique
DOI https://doi.org/10.3166/afmu-2020-0232
Publié en ligne 7 juillet 2020
  • Betjemann JP, Lowenstein DH (2015) Status epilepticus in adults. Lancet Neurol. Elsevier Ltd 14: 615–24 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hocker S (2015) Systemic complications of status epilepticus. An update. Epilepsy Behav 49: 83–7 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rossetti AO, Logroscino G, Bromfield EB (2006) A clinical score for prognosis of status epilepticus in adults. Neurology 66: 1736–8 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Outin H, Blanc T, Vinatier I, et al (2009) Prise en charge en situation d’urgence et en réanimation des états de mal épileptiques de l’adulte et de l’enfant (nouveau-né exclu). Recommandations formalisées d’experts sous l’égide de la Société de réanimation de langue française. Reanim 18: 4–12 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Navarro V, Demeret S, Outin H (2016) Vers de nouvelles recommandations françaises sur la prise en charge des états de mal épileptiques. Med Intensive Reanim 25: 450–2 [Google Scholar]
  • Commission on classification and terminology of the international league against epilepsy (1981) Proposal for revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 22: 489–501 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Tenaillon A, Ameri A, Baron D, et al (1995) Prise en charge de l’état de mal épileptique (enfants-adultes). Reanim Urg 47: 387–96 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lowenstein DH, Bleck T, Macdonald RL (1999) It’s time to revise the definition of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 40: 120–2 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Haut SR, Shinnar S, Moshé SL, et al (1999) The association between seizure clustering and convulsive status epilepticus in patients with intractable complex partial seizures. Epilepsia 40: 1832–4 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kinney MO, Kaplan PW (2017) An update on the recognition and treatment of non-convulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit. Expert Rev Neurother 17: 987–1002 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rossetti AO, Logroscino G, Bromfield EB (2005) Refractory status epilepticus: effect of treatment aggressiveness on prognosis. Arch Neurol 62: 1698–702 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Novy J, Logroscino G, Rossetti AO (2010) Refractory status epilepticus: a prospective observational study. Epilepsia 51: 251–6 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Shorvon S, Ferlisi M (2011) The treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus: a critical review of available therapies and a clinical treatment protocol. Brain J Neurol 134: 2802–18 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Rossetti AO, Alvarez V, Burnand B, Januel JM (2013) Treatment deviating from guidelines does not influence status epilepticus prognosis. J Neurol 260: 421–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alvarez V, Westover MB, Drislane FW, et al (2014) Evaluation of a clinical tool for early etiology identification in status epilepticus. Epilepsia 55: 2059–68 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hocker SE (2015) Status epilepticus. Contin Minneap Minn 21: 1362–83 [Google Scholar]
  • Young GB, Jordan KG (1998) Do Nonconvulsive seizures damage the brain ? Yes. Arch Neurol 55: 117–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wu YW, Shek DW, Garcia PA, et al (2002) Incidence and mortality of generalized convulsive status epilepticus in California. Neurology 58: 1070–6 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Aminoff MJ, Simon RP (1980) Status Epilepticus. Causes, clinical features and consequences in 98 patients. Am J Med 69: 657–66 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Tan RYL, Neligan A, Shorvon SD (2010) The uncommon causes of status epilepticus : a systematic review. Epilepsy Res. Elsevier BV 91: 111–22 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Ferlisi M, Shorvon S (2014) Seizure precipitants (triggering factors) in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. Elsevier Inc 33: 101–5 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Frucht MM, Quigg M, Schwaner C, Fountain NB (2000) Distribution of seizure precipitants among epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsia 41: 1534–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Spatola M, Novy J, Du Pasquier R, et al (2015) Status epilepticus of inflammatory etiology A cohort study. Neurology 85: 464–70 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Hirsch LJ, Gaspard N (2013) Status epilepticus. Continuum 19: 767–94 [Google Scholar]
  • Alvarez V, Westover MB, Drislane FW, et al (2014) Evaluation of a clinical tool for early etiology identification in status epilepticus. Epilepsia 55: 2059–68 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sonneville R, Mariotte E, Neuville M, et al (2016) Early-onset status epilepticus in patients with acute encephalitis. Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e4092 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zoons E, Weisfelt M, de Gans J, et al (2008) Seizures in adults with bacterial meningitis. Neurology. 70: 2109–15 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Kalita J, Chandra S, Misra UK (2012) Significance of seizure in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Seizure 21: 639–42 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Fugate JE, Rabinstein AA (2015) Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: clinical and radiological manifestations, pathophysiology, and outstanding questions. Lancet Neurol 14: 914–25 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bateman BT, Claassen J, Willey JZ, et al (2007) Convulsive status epilepticus after ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage: frequency, predictors, and impact on outcome in a large administrative dataset. Neurocrit Care 7: 187–93 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Lahiri S, Mayer SA, Fink ME, et al (2015) Mechanical ventilation for acute stroke: a Multi-state Population-Based Study. Neurocrit Care 23: 28–32 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Dhakar MB, Sivakumar S, Bhattacharya P (2015) A retrospective cross-sectional study of the prevalence of generalized convulsive status epilepticus in traumatic brain injury: United States 2002-2010. Seizure 32: 16–22 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beghi E, Carpio A, Forsgren L, et al (2010) Recommendation for a definition of acute symptomatic seizure. Epilepsia 51: 671–5 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alvarez V, Rossetti AO (2016) Monotherapy or polytherapy for first-Line treatment of SE? J Clin Neurophysiol 33: 14–7 [Google Scholar]
  • Goyal MK, Sinha S, Ravishankar S, Shivshankar JJ (2008) Role of MR imaging in the evaluation of etiology of status epilepticus. J Neurol Sci 272: 143–50 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mendes A, Sampaio L (2016) Brain magnetic resonance in status epilepticus: a focused review. Seizure 38: 63–7 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Huang YC, Weng HH, Tsai Y, et al (2009) Periictal magnetic resonance imaging in status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 86: 72–81 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gaspard N, Foreman BP, Alvarez V, et al (2015) New-onset refractory status epilepticus: Etiology, clinical features, and outcome. Neurology 85: 1604–13 [Google Scholar]
  • Tumani H, Jobs C, Brettschneider J, et al (2015) Effect of epileptic seizures on the cerebrospinal fluid — a systematic retrospective analysis. Epilepsy Res 114: 23–31 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mook-Kanamori B, Van de Beek D, Wijdicks EFM (2009) Herpes simplex encephalitis with normal initial cerebrospinal fluid examination. J Am Geriatr Soc 57: 1514–5 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Graus F, Titulaer MJ, Balu R, et al (2016) A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Lancet Neurol 15: 391–404 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • De Montmollin E, Demeret S, Brulé N, et al (2017) Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in adult patients requiring intensive care. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 195: 491–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Tan NCK, Berkovic SF (2010) The epilepsy genetic association database (epiGAD): analysis of 165 genetic association studies, 1996–2008. Epilepsia 51: 686–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gresa-Arribas N, Titulaer MJ, Torrents A, et al (2014) Antibody titres at diagnosis and during follow-up of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: a retrospective study. Lancet Neurol 13: 167–77 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mukhin KY, Mameniškienė R, Mironov MB, et al (2012) Epilepsia partialis continua in tick-borne Russian spring-summer encephalitis. Acta Neurol Scand 125: 345–52 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Amicizia D, Domnich A, Panatto D et al (2013) Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe and its prevention by available vaccines. Hum Vaccines Immunother 9: 1163–71 [Google Scholar]
  • Chevallier JA, Von Allmen GK, Koenig MK (2014) Seizure semiology and EEG findings in mitochondrial diseases. Epilepsia 55: 707–12 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wolf NI, Rahman S, Schmitt B, et al (2019) Status epilepticus in children with Alpers’ disease caused by POLG1 mutations: EEG and MRI features. Epilepsia 50: 1596–607 [Google Scholar]
  • Prüss H, Holtkamp M (2008) Ketamine successfully terminates malignant status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 82: 219–22 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Costello DJ, Kilbride RD, Cole AJ (2009) Cryptogenic new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) in adults-infectious or not? J Neurol Sci 277: 26–31 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Peleg M, Tu S (2006) Decision support, knowledge representation and management in medicine. Yearb Med Inform 72–80 [Google Scholar]
  • Fesmire FM, Hughes AD, Fody EP, et al (2002) The erlanger chest pain evaluation protocol: a one-year experience with serial 12-lead ECG monitoring, two-hour delta serum marker measurements, and selective nuclear stress testing to identify and exclude acute coronary syndromes. Ann Emerg Med 40: 584–94 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bodde NMG, Brooks JL, Baker GA, et al (2009) Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures--definition, etiology, treatment and prognostic issues: a critical review. Seizure 18: 543–53 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hingray C, Biberon J, El-Hage W, de Toffol B (2016) Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). Rev Neurol (Paris) 172: 263–9 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chung SS, Gerber P, Kirlin KA (2006) Ictal eye closure is a reliable indicator for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Neurology 66: 1730–1 [Google Scholar]
  • Reuber M, Baker GA, Gill R, et al (2004) Failure to recognize psychogenic nonepileptic seizures may cause death. Neurology 62: 834–5 [Google Scholar]
  • Holtkamp M, Othman J, Buchheim K, Meierkord H (2006) Diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic status epilepticus in the emergency setting. Neurology 66: 1727–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Dworetzky BA, Mortati KA, Rossetti AO, et al (2006) Clinical characteristics of psychogenic nonepileptic seizure status in the long-term monitoring unit. Epilepsy Behav EB 9: 335–8 [Google Scholar]
  • Dworetzky BA, Bubrick EJ, Szaflarski JP, Nonepileptic seizure task force (2010) Nonepileptic psychogenic status: markedly prolonged psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsy Behav EB 19: 65–8 [Google Scholar]
  • Dworetzky BA, Weisholtz DS, Perez DL, Baslet G (2015) A clinically oriented perspective on psychogenic nonepileptic seizure-related emergencies. Clin EEG Neurosci 46: 26–33 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Pakalnis A, Paolicchi J, Gilles E (2000) Psychogenic status epilepticus in children: psychiatric and other risk factors. Neurology 54: 969–70 [Google Scholar]
  • Papavasiliou A, Vassilaki N, Paraskevoulakos E, et al (2004) Psychogenic status epilepticus in children. Epilepsy Behav EB 5:539–46 [Google Scholar]
  • Spitz MA, Vercueil L, Dubois-Teklali F (2012) Pseudostatus epilepticus : une complication grave des crises non épileptiques psychogènes (CNEP) chez l’enfant. Arch Pediatr 19: 47–50 [Google Scholar]
  • Benbadis SR, Agrawal V, Tatum WO (2001) How many patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures also have epilepsy? Neurology 57: 915–7 [Google Scholar]
  • Attia J, Cook DJ (1998) Prognosis in anoxic and traumatic coma. Crit Care Clin 14: 497–511 [Google Scholar]
  • Niedermeyer E, Fineyre F, Riley T, Bird B (1979) Myoclonus and the electroencephalogram, a review. Clin EEG Electroencephalogr 10: 75–95 [Google Scholar]
  • Yamashita S, Morinaga T, Ohgo S, et al (1995) Prognostic value of electroencephalogram (EEG) in anoxic encephalopathy after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: relationship among anoxic period, EEG grading and outcome. Intern Med 34: 71–6 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Van Cott AC, Blatt I, Brenner RP (1996) Stimulus-sensitive seizures in postanoxic coma. Epilepsia. 37: 868–74 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Fernández-Torre JL, González-Rato J, Martínez-Martínez M (2005) Acute stimulus-sensitive postanoxic myoclonus: description of a case. Clin EEG Neurosci 36: 199–201 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hockaday JM, Potts F, Epstein E, et al (1965) Electroencephalographic changes in acute cerebral anoxia from cardiac or respiratory arrest. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 18: 575–86 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Dunand AC, Jallon P (2002) Les activités paroxystiques pseudo-périodiques en électroencéphalographie. Neurophysiol Clin 32: 2–37 [Google Scholar]
  • Rudler M, Marois C, Weiss N, et al (2017) Status epilepticus in patients with cirrhosis: How to avoid misdiagnosis in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Seizure 45: 192–7 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gerstner T, Buesing D, Longin E, et al (2006) Valproic acid induced encephalopathy. 19 new cases in Germany from 1994 to 2003. A side effect associated to VPA-therapy not only in young children. Seizure 15: 443–8 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chanson E, Bicilli É, Lauxerois M, et al (2016) Anti-NMDA-R encephalitis: Should we consider extreme delta brush as electrical status epilepticus? Neurophysiol Clin 46: 17–25 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wieser HG, Schindler K, Zumsteg D (2006) EEG in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Clin Neurophysiol 117: 935–51 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Lapergue B, Demeret S, Denys V, et al (2010) Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimicking nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Neurology 74: 1995–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Roppolo LP, Walters K (2004) Airway management in neurological emergencies. Neurocrit Care 1: 405–14 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Adrogué HJ, Madias NE (2000) Hyponatremia. N Engl J Med 342: 1581–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Çelik T, Tolunay O, Tolunay I, Çelik Ü (2014) Cerebral salt wasting in status epilepticus: two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurol 50: 397–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Kellinghaus C, Berning S, Stögbauer F (2014) Use of oxcarbazepine for treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Seizure 23: 151–4 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kline CA, Esekogwu VI, Henderson SO, Newton KI (1998) Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with hypocalcemia. J Emerg Med 16: 715–8 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wijdicks EFM (2013) The multifaceted care of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 54:S61–S63 [Google Scholar]
  • Boggs JG, Painter JA, DeLorenzo RJ (1993) Analysis of electrocardiographic changes in status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 14: 87–94 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Belcour D, Jabot J, Grard B, et al (2015) Prevalence and risk factors of stress cardiomyopathy after convulsive status epilepticus in ICU patients. Crit Care Med 43: 2164–70 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Stöllberger C, Wegner C, Finsterer J (2011) Seizure-associated Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Epilepsia 52:e160–7 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Finsterer J, Bersano A (2015) Seizure-triggered Takotsubo syndrome rarely causes SUDEP. Seizure 31: 84–7 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hocker S, Prasad A, Rabinstein AA (2013) Cardiac injury in refractory status epilepticus. Epilepsia 54: 518–22 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mehrpour M, Hajsadeghi S, Fereshtehnejad SM, et al (2013) Serum levels of cardiac troponin I in patients with status epilepticus and healthy cardiovascular system. Arch Med Res 44: 449–53 [Google Scholar]
  • Soundarya N, Lawrence D, Samip J, et al (2014) Elevation of cardiac troponins in prolonged status epilepticus: A retrospective chart analysis. SOJ Neurol 1: 1–4 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Adams BD, Buckley NH, Kim JY, Tipps LB (2006) Fosphenytoin may cause hemodynamically unstable bradydysrhythmias. J Emerg Med 30: 75–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Geeraerts T, Velly L, Abdennour L, et al (2016). Prise en charge des traumatisés crâniens graves à la phase précoce (24 premières heures). Anesth Reanim 2: 431–53 [Google Scholar]
  • Wasterlain CG, Fujikawa DG, Penix L, Sankar R (1993) Pathophysiological mechanisms of brain damage from status epilepticus. Epilepsia 34:S37–53 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beskind DL, Rhodes SM, Stolz U, et al (2014) When should you test for and treat hypoglycemia in prehospital seizure patients? Prehospital Emerg Care 18: 433–41 [Google Scholar]
  • Remick K, Redgate C, Ostermayer D, et al (2017) Prehospital glucose testing for children with seizures: a proposed change in management. Prehospital Emerg Care 21: 216–21 [Google Scholar]
  • Tomlinson FH, Anderson RE, Meyer FB (1993) Effect of arterial blood pressure and serum glucose on brain intracellular pH, cerebral and cortical blood flow during status epilepticus in the white New Zealand rabbit. Epilepsy Res 14: 123–37 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Chiewthanakul P, Noppaklao P, Sawanyawisuth K, Tiamkao S (2015) Hyperglycemia associated with seizure control in status epilepticus. Epilepsy Behav EB 49: 155–7 [Google Scholar]
  • Chiewthanakul P, Noppaklao P, Sawanyawisuth K, Tiamkao S (2015) Factors associated with poor discharge status in patients with status epilepticus at Khon Kaen hospital. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 11: 1097–101 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rathakrishnan R, Sidik NP, Huak CY, Wilder-Smith EP (2009) Generalised convulsive status epilepticus in Singapore: clinical outcomes and potential prognostic markers. Seizure 18: 202–5 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nice-Sugar Study Investigators, Finfer S, Chittock DR, et al (2009) Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 360: 1283–97 [Google Scholar]
  • Bilotta F, Rosa G (2010) Glucose management in the neurosurgical patient: are we yet any closer? Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 23: 539–43 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cinotti R, Ichai C, Orban JC, et al (2014) Effects of tight computerized glucose control on neurological outcome in severely brain injured patients: a multicenter sub-group analysis of the randomized-controlled open-label CGAO-REA study. Crit Care 18:498 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Liu Z, Gatt A, Mikati M, Holmes GL (1993) Effect of temperature on kainic acid-induced seizures. Brain Res 631: 51–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Suchomelova L, Lopez-Meraz ML, Niquet J (2015) Hyperthermia aggravates status epilepticus-induced epileptogenesis and neuronal loss in immature rats. Neuroscience 305: 209–24 [Google Scholar]
  • Zeiler FA, Zeiler KJ, Teitelbaum J, et al (2015) Therapeutic hypothermia for refractory status epilepticus. Can J Neurol Sci 42: 221–9 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Subcommittee on febrile seizures, American academy of pediatrics (2011) Neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics 127: 389–94 [Google Scholar]
  • Saxena M, Young P, Pilcher D, et al (2015) Early temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with acute neurological diseases: trauma and stroke differ from infection. Intensive Care Med 41: 823–32. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Legriel S, Azoulay E, Resche-Rigon M, et al (2010) Functional outcome after convulsive status epilepticus. Crit Care Med 38: 2295–303 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Vohra TT, Miller JB, Nicholas KS, et al (2015) Endotracheal intubation in patients treated for prehospital status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 23: 33–43 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Parviainen I, Kälviäinen R, Ruokonen E (2007) Propofol and barbiturates for the anesthesia of refractory convulsive status epilepticus: pros and cons. Neurol Res 29: 667–71 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Asehnoune K, Mahe PJ, Seguin P, et al (2012). Etomidate increases susceptibility to pneumonia in trauma patients. Intensive Care Med 38: 1673–82 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Le Roux P, Menon DK, Citerio G, et al (2014) Consensus summary statement of the international multidisciplinary consensus conference on multimodality monitoring in neurocritical care: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical care society and the European society of intensive care medicine. Neurocrit Care 21:S1–26 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Karlov V (2015) Systemic mechanisms of antiepileptic protection. Epilepsy Behav 49: 90–7 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, et al (2001) A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 345: 631–7 [Google Scholar]
  • Treiman DM, Meyers PD, Walton NY, et al (1998) A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Veterans Affairs Status Epilepticus Cooperative Study Group. N Engl J Med 339: 792–8 [Google Scholar]
  • Prasad M, Krishnan PR, Sequeira R, Al-Roomi K (2014) Anticonvulsant therapy for status epilepticus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD003723 [Google Scholar]
  • Alvarez V, Lee JW, Drislane FW, et al (2015) Practice variability and efficacy of clonazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam in status epilepticus: A multicenter comparison. Epilepsia 56: 1275–85 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McIntyre J, Robertson S, Norris E, et al (2005) Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366: 205–10 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • McMullan J, Sasson C, Pancioli A, Silbergleit R (2010) Midazolam versus diazepam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children and young adults: a meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med 17: 575–82 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Silbergleit R, Durkalski V, Lowenstein D, et al (2012) Intramuscular versus intravenous therapy for prehospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 366: 591–600 [Google Scholar]
  • Navarro V, Dagron C, Elie C, et al (2016) Prehospital treatment with levetiracetam plus clonazepam or placebo plus clonazepam in status epilepticus (SAMUKeppra): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol 15: 47–55 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mundlamuri RC, Sinha S, Subbakrishna DK, et al (2015) Management of generalised convulsive status epilepticus (SE): A prospective randomised controlled study of combined treatment with intravenous lorazepam with either phenytoin, sodium valproate or levetiracetam--Pilot study. Epilepsy Res 114: 52–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Aranda A, Foucart G, Ducassé JL (2010) Generalized convulsive status epilepticus management in adults: a cohort study with evaluation of professional practice. Epilepsia 51: 2159–67 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Yasiry Z, Shorvon SD (2014) The relative effectiveness of five antiepileptic drugs in treatment of benzodiazepine-resistant convulsive status epilepticus: a meta-analysis of published studies. Seizure 23: 167–74 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Trinka E, Höfler J, Zerbs A, Brigo F (2014) Efficacy and safety of intravenous valproate for status epilepticus: a systematic review. CNS Drugs 28: 623–39 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Agarwal P, Kumar N, Chandra R, et al (2007). Randomized study of intravenous valproate and phenytoin in status epilepticus. Seizure 16: 527–32 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Malamiri RA, Ghaempanah M, Khosroshahi N, et al (2012) Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 16: 536–41 [Google Scholar]
  • Alvarez V, Januel JM, Burnand B, Rossetti AO (2011) Second-line status epilepticus treatment: comparison of phenytoin, valproate, and levetiracetam. Epilepsia 52: 1292–6 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Falco-Walter JJ, Bleck T (2016) Treatment of established status epilepticus. J Clin Med 5:49 [Google Scholar]
  • Kellinghaus C, Berning S, Immisch I, et al (2011) Intravenous lacosamide for treatment of status epilepticus. Acta Neurol Scand 123: 137–41 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Meierkord H, Boon P, Engelsen B, et al (2010) EFNS guideline on the management of status epilepticus in adults. Eur J Neurol 17: 348–55 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Brophy GM, Bell R, Claassen J, et al (2012) Guidelines for the evaluation and management of status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 17: 3–23 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, et al (2016) Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children and adults: Report of the guideline committee of the American epilepsy society. Epilepsy Curr 16: 48–61 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Wilder-Smith OH, Ravussin PA, Decosterd LA, et al (2001) Midazolam premedication reduces propofol dose requirements for multiple anesthetic endpoints. Can J Anaesth 48: 439–45 [Google Scholar]
  • Rossetti AO, Lowenstein DH (2011) Management of refractory status epilepticus in adults: still more questions than answers. Lancet Neurol 10: 922–30 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Fernandez A, Lantigua H, Lesch C, et al (2014) High-dose midazolam infusion for refractory status epilepticus. Neurology 82: 359–65 [Google Scholar]
  • Bellante F, Legros B, Depondt C, et al (2016) Midazolam and thiopental for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus: a retrospective comparison of efficacy and safety. J Neurol 263: 799–806 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Cereda C, Berger MM, Rossetti AO (2009) Bowel ischemia: a rare complication of thiopental treatment for status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 10: 355–8 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Sutter R, Tschudin-Sutter S, Grize L, et al (2012) Associations between infections and clinical outcome parameters in status epilepticus: a retrospective 5-year cohort study. Epilepsia 53: 1489–97 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bray RJ (2002) The propofol infusion syndrome in infants and children: can we predict the risk? Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 15: 339–42 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gaspard N, Foreman B, Judd LM, et al (2013) Intravenous ketamine for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus: a retrospective multicenter study. Epilepsia 54: 1498–503 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Reznik ME, Berger K, Claassen J (2016) Comparison of intravenous anesthetic agents for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. J Clin Med 5:54 [Google Scholar]
  • Hottinger A, Sutter R, Marsch S, Rüegg S (2012) Topiramate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with refractory status epilepticus: an observational cohort study. CNS Drugs 26: 761–72 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Höfler J, Trinka E (2013) Lacosamide as a new treatment option in status epilepticus. Epilepsia 54: 393–404 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Thakur KT, Probasco JC, Hocker SE, et al (2014) Ketogenic diet for adults in super-refractory status epilepticus. Neurology 82: 665–70 [Google Scholar]
  • Young GB, Jordan KG, Doig GS (1996) An assessment of nonconvulsive seizures in the intensive care unit using continuous EEG monitoring: an investigation of variables associated with mortality. Neurology 47: 83–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Friedman D, Claassen J, Hirsch LJ (2009) Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring in the intensive care unit. Anesth Analg 109: 506–23 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Alvarez V, Drislane FW, Westover MB, et al (2015) Characteristics and role in outcome prediction of continuous EEG after status epilepticus: a prospective observational cohort. Epilepsia 56: 933–41 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Beniczky S, Hirsch LJ, Kaplan PW, et al (2013) Unified EEG terminology and criteria for nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsia 54:S28–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Leitinger M, Beniczky S, Rohracher A, et al (2015) Salzburg Consensus Criteria for Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus--approach to clinical application. Epilepsy Behav 49: 158–63 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Trinka E, Leitinger M (2015) Which EEG patterns in coma are nonconvulsive status epilepticus? Epilepsy Behav 49: 203–22 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • André-Obadia N, Lamblin MD, Sauleau P (2015) French recommendations on electroencephalography. Neurophysiol Clin 45: 1–17 [Google Scholar]
  • Claassen J, Taccone FS, Horn P, et al (2013) Recommendations on the use of EEG monitoring in critically ill patients: consensus statement from the neurointensive care section of the ESICM. Intensive Care Med 39: 1337–51 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Vanherpe P, Schrooten M (2017) Minimal EEG montage with high yield for the detection of status epilepticus in the setting of postanoxic brain damage. Acta Neurol Belg 117: 145–52 [Google Scholar]
  • Young GB, Sharpe MD, Savard M, et al (2009) Seizure detection with a commercially available bedside EEG monitor and the subhairline montage. Neurocrit Care 11: 411–6 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • André-Obadia N, Parain D, Szurhaj W (2015) Continuous EEG monitoring in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurophysiol Clin Clin Neurophysiol 45: 39–46 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Riker RR, Fraser GL, Wilkins ML (2003) Comparing the bispectral index and suppression ratio with burst suppression of the electroencephalogram during pentobarbital infusions in adult intensive care patients. Pharmacotherapy 23: 1087–93 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Musialowicz T, Mervaala E, Kälviäinen R, et al (2010) Can BIS monitoring be used to assess the depth of propofol anesthesia in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus? Epilepsia 51: 1580–6 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Gilad R, Izkovitz N, Dabby R, et al (2008). Treatment of status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures with i.v. valproic acid vs phenytoin. Acta Neurol Scand 118: 296–300. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kämppi L, Mustonen H, Soinila S (2015) Factors related to delays in pre-hospital management of status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 22: 93–104 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Nair PP, Kalita J, Misra UK (2009) Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status. Eur J Radiol 70: 475–80. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Claassen J, Riviello JJ, Silbergleit R (2015) Emergency neurological life support: Status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 23:S136–42 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Demeret S, Weiss N, Bolgert F, Navarro V (2013) What is specialized care in status epilepticus and in which ICU? Neurocrit Care 19: 1–3 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bleck TP (2012) Status epilepticus and the use of continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit. Contin 18: 560–78 [Google Scholar]
  • Butler CR, Graham KS, Hodges JR, et al (2007) The syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia. Ann Neurol 61: 587–98 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Mosbah A, Tramoni E, Guedj E et al (2014) Clinical, neuropsychological, and metabolic characteristics of transient epileptic amnesia syndrome. Epilepsia 55: 699–706 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Felician O, Tramoni E, Bartolomei F (2015) Transient epileptic amnesia: Update on a slowly emerging epileptic syndrome. Rev Neurol 171: 289–97 [Google Scholar]
  • Thomas P, Gelisse P (2009) Etats de mal épileptiques non convulsifs. Rev Neurol 165: 380–9 [Google Scholar]
  • Chatrian GE, Shaw CM, Leffman H (1964) The significance of periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in EEG: an electrographic, clinical and pathological study. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 17: 177–93 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Hirsch LJ, Gaspard N (2013) Status epilepticus. Contin 19: 767–94 [Google Scholar]
  • Scott RC (2005) Buccal midazolam as rescue therapy for acute seizures. Lancet Neurol 4: 592–3 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Meierkord H, Holtkamp M (2007) Non-convulsive status epilepticus in adults: clinical forms and treatment. Lancet Neurol 6: 329–39 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Patel NC, Landan IR, Levin J, et al (2006). The use of levetiracetam in refractory status epilepticus. Seizure 15: 137–41 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Eue S, Grumbt M, Müller M, Schulze A (2009) Two years of experience in the treatment of status epilepticus with intravenous levetiracetam. Epilepsy Behav 15: 467–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Tomson T, Svanborg E, Wedlund JE (1986) Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: high incidence of complex partial status. Epilepsia 27: 276–85 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kellinghaus C, Berning S, Stögbauer F (2014) Intravenous lacosamide or phenytoin for treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Acta Neurol Scand 129: 294–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Redecker J, Wittstock M, Benecke R, Rösche J (2015) Efficacy of perampanel in refractory nonconvulsive status epilepticus and simple partial status epilepticus. Epilepsy Behav 45: 176–9 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Rohracher A, Brigo F, Höfler J, et al (2016) Perampanel for the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother 17: 1403–11 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Bensalem MK, Fakhoury TA (2003) Topiramate and status epilepticus: report of three cases. Epilepsy Behav 4: 757–60 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Meierkord H, Boon P, Engelsen B, et al (2006) EFNS guideline on the management of status epilepticus. Eur J Neurol 13: 445–50 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  • Kaplan PW (1999) Assessing the outcomes in patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus: nonconvulsive status epilepticus is underdiagnosed, potentially overtreated, and confounded by comorbidity. J Clin Neurophysiol 16: 341–52; discussion 353 [Google Scholar]
  • Sutter R, Marsch S, Fuhr P (2014) Anesthetic drugs in status epilepticus: risk or rescue? A 6-year cohort study. Neurology 82: 656–64 [Google Scholar]

Les statistiques affichées correspondent au cumul d'une part des vues des résumés de l'article et d'autre part des vues et téléchargements de l'article plein-texte (PDF, Full-HTML, ePub... selon les formats disponibles) sur la platefome Vision4Press.

Les statistiques sont disponibles avec un délai de 48 à 96 heures et sont mises à jour quotidiennement en semaine.

Le chargement des statistiques peut être long.